Flora, Fauna and ClimateФлора, фауна и климатFlora und Fauna

Since Armenia is situated on the junction of forest-meadow and desert-semidesert geobotanical provinces, it is characterized by diverse vegetation.   The forests form up to 12% of the territory and are located in the mountains.  The main kinds are oak, beech and hornbeam, which form mixed forests together with linden, maple, ash and fruit tees – pear, apple, cherry and cherry-plum.  Mainly steppe vegetation grows on the plains of Armenia, bushes grow on rocky areas, and southernwood on lower relieves.

A Forest at Jermuk

In Armenia there are about 450 kinds of vertebrates (76 kinds of them mammals), 304 kinds of birds, 44 kinds of reptiles, 6 kinds of amphibias and 24 kinds of fish, and more than 10,000 kinds of invertebrates, many of which live in the Armenian plateau. Reptiles live mainly on foothills. The most wide-spread kinds of snakes are the aggressive gyurza, and Caucasian viper, from spiders – scorpion. In the upland and mountain steppes there are very many rodents:  gopher, jerboa and even field mice.  Various kinds of birds can be seen in these regions: hoopoes, skylarks, etc. In the south of the country there is pasan and mountain boar, in the mountains – deer, fox, Syrian bear and even leopard, many kinds of rodents and birds. In the north-eastern mountains there is raccoon dog, in the Sevjur River valley – nutria, and in Khosrov forest - dappled deer. 

Armenia has a sharp continental, mountainous climate. Depending on the season, weather may strongly differ even in neighboring points. The summer is usually dry and hot, the winter not long but rather severe. Strong frost up to -28°C often happens here in the spring/autumn season. The average temperature in the foothill areas is +26°C in the summer and about +5°C in the winter; in mountainous regions +10°C to +22°C in the summer and from +2°C to -14°C in the winter, depending on the altitude. The average quantity of precipitation also depends on the altitude and varies from 200 to 800 mm. per year. Autumn and mid-spring are the most favorable times for visiting Armenia.